The most credible hypothesis is based on an earlier arrival of man on Malagasy soil mixture. Indonesians from the North Indian Ocean through the monsoon would have continued on the East African coast stay. There after, intermingled AFRICAN assimilated, they would come to Madagascar. In these proto-Malagasy would integrated and Indonesian Bantu immigrants. The date of the first trips can not be estimated at nearly a millennium. It is after the appearance of iron in Asia (between 500 BC, And 200 AC) and before the Hinduization of Indonesia (between 100 and 600 AC).
From the XIIth century, Arab merchants set up trading posts on the coast northwest. Other Muslim establish small colonies on the east coast. Their presence results in commercial ties, but also by influences in the field of magic, astrology, religion. Although perfectly assimilated, they remain attached to their culture of origin and we owe the first written documents found on the Big Island. These are the Sorbian, the “GREAT BOOKS” written in Malagasy language with Arabic characters. Tinged with mythology, filled with magic spells, they are a testimony to the sacred tradition that unites the clan to its origins.
For its part, the Malagasy language also has features which demonstrate a dual membership. From the seventeenth century, European travelers, who do not yet have linguists, are struck by the relationship that unites this talk to the Indonesian branch of the Austronesian languages. More recently, there has been extreme similarity with MAAJAN OF BORNEO. The original Indonesian has been modified by an African pronunciation accustomed to final vowels. Regarding vocabulary, most words related to clothing, housing wood and metal work are Indonesian strain. However, the terms for the kitchen and pets are mostly of Bantu origin. The Malagasy language to therefore also fused complementary inputs of both peoples.
This double Asian and African influence is reflected in the socio-cultural features and technical identifiable on the island. And outrigger canoe, methods of fishing and hunting, as houses, ancestor worship, customs of politeness and oral literature directly reminiscent of Indonesia, while the importance of beef as a sign of wealth , pottery or circumcision reflects the connection with the African civilization of the East.


IIè about Century: the Indo-Melanesian people come to MADAGASCAR.
First European to Madagascar. Some historians and some archaeologists assume that the cave served as shelter for Portuguese sailors XVI th Century. Hence its name – which had failed in 1527 off MOROMBE on the west coast. They would therefore refuge in the cave, and they joined the most hospitable land around the current TOLAGNARO (FORT DAUPHIN) or another group of shipwrecked Portuguese had built a fort. There is no evidence, however, to confirm this hypothesis and the Malagasy region that does not include vazaha have been voluntarily stay in a cave!
As shelter, which resembles a fortress, is oriented towards Mecca, another theory would suggest that the cave dates from the eleventh century and its first occupants are of Arab origin. The MALAGASY argue legendary vazimba or Kalanoro which would be the first inhabitants of Madagascar. However, anthropologists do not believe in the existence of such tribes.
TO 1700:
The MENABE extend their power over the island, so often populated by many rival ethnic groups.
whose territory extends over a large portion of the west. Malagasy are from the confederation of several ethnic groups. Born in Valley Mangoky their kingdom spread rapidly westward, taking the passage of SAKALAVA name, which means “Those long valley”. During most of the seventeenth century, SAKALAVA lived under the reign of ANDRIANAHIFOTSY, the White King, who moved the capital to MAHABO Maneva and began to conquer the surrounding land with guns purchased from traders .
ANDRIANAHIFOTSY AMBITION WAS TO CREATE A GREAT UNITED SAKALAVA that encompasses the entire Big Island. At his death, his son quarrel led to the partition of the country into two kingdoms SAKALAVA, MENABE (south) and BOINA (north). The XVIIIth century, the influence of the two groups extended over nearly a third of MADAGASCAR.
 Before pastors, SAKALAVA revealed in their physical African origin. This ethnic group has two subgroups: THE MAKOA near Mahajanga, descendants of African slaves, andTHE VEZO (paguayeurs), semi-nomadic fishermen farther south.
“those who do not cut their hair” live northwest of the island. A tradition was that the subjects of ROI SAKALAVA cut their hair after the death of their king as a sign of respect and mourning, symbolic Tsimihety have refused gesture.
– 03 – ANTESAKA:
This small traditional group, “those of the country SAKALAVA” is a branch of SAKALAVA and lives mainly in a region CÖTE SOUTHEAST. According to history, the Antesaka are very good warriors.
– 04 – BARA :
the name of the tribe of south-central would be part of Bantu origin. Its significance is unknown. Tall and thin, the BARA feature the most obvious of all Malagasy African traits. The people of breeders also a reputation as warriors. Cattle rustling, supposed to prove manhood and merit of young men before marriage is a common practice in countries BARA.
– 05 – MAHAFALY:
These farmers “Makers taboos” occupy the south and southwest, passing by places Antandroy and Antanosy. Arrived quite recently, there are probably less than 900 years, Mahafaly have resisted attempts at unification of ANDRIANAMPOINIMERINA and remained relatively independent to the French colonization. Mahafaly tombs, with their extravagant Aloalo (wood carvings generally complex measuring over a meter high) and stelae depicting the life of the ancestors, are the most amazing island. The MAHAFALY are also known for their wisdom.
Semi-nomadic “Those thorns” They inhabit the thorn forests, arid and desolate, the extreme South. Their regions lacking water.
A confederation of several tribes gave birth to the people of the coastal region of North-East, whose name means “Those who do not separate.” This was the work of Ratsimilaho, Group Head ZANAMALATA “mulatto children” so named in reference to their partly European ancestry.
– 08 – TANALA:
“those of the forest” inhabit the mountainous eastern part of the tropical forests around RANOMAFANA. Hunters and farmers. The tanala, small size, are known for their knowledge of medicinal plants and honey they harvest.
– 09 – ANTEMORO:
Influenced by Arab sailors who failed on the east coast of the island in the eighth century, the ANTEMORO “Those shore” are famous for the paper that bears their name. The story goes that ANTEMORO converted to Islam, began to manufacture the paper close to the papyrus to use the media to verses in the Koran that copied the KATIBO or scribes of the nobility. The fruit of their efforts was then known as the Sorbian or “Great Scriptures.” Later it was anthropologists who employed this paper will record their predictions, then ombiasy (healers) who transcribed the formulas of their potions.
The ANTEMORO paper is produced from the bark of mulberry called avoha variety, which grows on the coast SOUTHEAST the island. The production was subsequently moved inland, more conducive to drying. We begin by boiling the bark fibers for 3 to 4 hours before the sort and rinse. They are then crushed with a mallet until a brown paste which is then diluted with water and dried in the sun preparing to spread evenly on the canvas. The result is a thick, stringy light beige paper, sometimes decorated with dried flower petals.
 In 1936, a French planter PIERRE MATHIEU, managed to achieve the Millennium ANTEMORO making their paper secret. It improved the process and produced on a larger scale.
“Those of the community” inhabit a region of SOUTH EAST near MANANJARY, they maintain some Islamic traditions as the ban on pork.
The country Antefasy and Zafisoro focuses on FARAFANGANA who share the same territory.
Residing mainly in swampy lowlands around Lake Alaotra denominate “Those who wander in the marshes.” These fishermen and rice farmers drained the region sometimes still considered “THE ATTIC OF MADAGASCAR”.
Few, they wear headdresses African styles, or the name of “those who carry a lot of braids.” Habitat, a portion of rainforest covers a narrow strip of north-south oriented mountain between Antananarivo and the coast.
TOWARDS 1790: the MERINA become the dominant group
-15 – MERINA:
1) “Those highlands” are the first people of Madagascar by the number. He is a king MERINA that must unification, often by force, of the island. These people are characterized by a clearer skin and more Asian features.
The Merina are also distinguished by their caste system based primarily on the color of the skin: ANDRIANA or nobles, commoners and HOVA or andevo or workers. These were not slaves in the European sense of the word, contrary to what has long been said, especially in the colonial era.
 2) There are many sources that show the cruelty of Queen Ranavalona Ist. She ascended the throne upon the death of her husband, RADAMA Ist and quickly takes up against its policy of openness. It begins by declaring illegal Christianity hundreds of his subjects who refuse to renounce their faith, and missionaries are thrown from the top of cliffs Ambohipotsy. At the same time, foreign diplomats are abused or imprisoned. But it was his own people who will suffer most from the reign of what was called the MALAGASY CALIGULA. She ordered his guards, HOVA strong disciplined to submit all the rival tribes of his kingdom, reducing enemies into slavery and decimate the other, it will be done. Ranavalona is also notorious for its torture methods. Prisoners are yoked by the neck to a wheel and iron released into the countryside, or they wander in search of food, the farmers themselves have a hard time finding, until they starve or rupture of the neck. Dozens of victims were tied to stakes planted in long, narrow ditches that boiling water slowly fills. On the other are thrown off cliffs, connected to a rope which is then cut.
Everyone Queen suspected of treason are subject to trial by ordeal (trial involving natural elements), including RAKOTOBE his nephew, the heir to the throne, and to her lovers. They are forced to swallow three pieces of chicken skin at the same time as chips of extremely toxic fruit tanghin a MALAGASY tree. Agitated by violent convulsions, cramps and vomiting, the accused must prove his innocence by regurgitating the three pieces of chicken, royal shamans then consider if the result looks good argues! If only two pieces reappear, the accused is convicted and tortured to death. It can be sawed in half, or cut all its members before being sewn into a buffalo skin and abandoned. Justice is not of this world: Ranavalona died of natural causes …
 Several European writers of the time, including the French IDA PFEIFFER AND JEAN Laborde (which is said he was the lover of QUEEN) have recorded these excesses in writing.
The exploits of this cruel sovereign were used to justify the French expedition of 1895, one of whose goals, according to the military propaganda of the colonizers, was “RELEASE THE COUNTRY OF BRUTALITY MERINA”.
– 16 – BETSILEO:
1) “The Invincibles”, who live around Fianarantsoa, are the third largest ethnic group by number. Known for their talented cabinetmakers and farmers, they have mastered particularly rice terraces. THE ZAFIMANIRY, the distinguished sculptors wood, form a sub-group that occupies territories in Southeast Ambositra.
 2) The upper town of FIANARANTSOA: protected historic and architectural interest “TANANA ambony” uptown FIANARANTSOA area, has no equivalent in MADAGASCAR, located about 800 m above the new town The original Fianar was founded on 1st June 1830 by Queen Ranavalona I era. Built by soldiers MERINA, it was intended to become the capital of the southern provinces and establish the power of the cruel Queen of the country BETSILEO.
The imposing Cathedral Ambozontany is not far from it the only place of worship in the upper town. Dotted with towers, it welcomes all current effect of the Catholic religion. If TANANA ambony is now somewhat decrepit and in need of restoration because of its charm streets paved slope, tight against each other house, stairs and wooden balconies and wrought rickety, however remains. THE Rova (palace), built on top did not survive history. A primary school stands on its location. In addition to a superb panorama, you can see the stone which was nicknamed the “MALAGASY CALIGULA” was run once sentenced to death. Ranavalona I era was also digging an artificial lake to remind the Anosy of his beloved Antananarivo.
There are regular buses uptown. Their stops, well marked are scattered in the city. Along the way you will see over a door lintel on which is engraved “MAISON FRANCAISE-MALAGASY 1st August 1898.” Try to go walk there on Sunday morning, when all the inhabitants of Fianarantsoa converge in their finery to the churches of the upper town.
– 17 – ANTANOSY:
fleeing the rise MERINA, “Those on the island,” so called in reference to an island located near FORT-DAUPHIN settled in a vast semi-arid zone of the southern end of the country .
People certainly affiliated to the north-Sakalava whose country stretches along the west coast, The Antakarana remain inseparable from massive Ankarana, or the members of this ethnic group réfugèrent to escape the rise of MERINA. The Antakarana thus preserved a belief system in which nature plays a large part.
Their main tradition is that of TSANGATSAINA, which takes place every five years. The ritual begins with a visit to the royal tombs, to ensure the consent of the sovereign dead in pursuit of ceremonies. The next step takes place at a later in the village of AMBOTOHARANANA, or we erect a sacred pole, carved in tree trunks HAZOAMBO above the tombs of past political leaders Antakarana. These rituals are intended to celebrate the past and present membrs unit of this ethnic group, and the role allows the monarchy. Indeed, there are always a king Antakarana whose function is now largely ceremonial


NARCISSE BIRDWATCHERThe essential tool for bird watching is the binoculars part. The ideal magnification for the observation is x 10. You can use a magnification x 8 at a pinch to observe at home, in the forest or in town. It also requires a good "output diameter" (i.e. that of the front lens), 40 or 42 mm being the best, for a matter of brightness. The pair of binocular type for the birdwatcher is a 10 x 40 or 10 x 42.
-Avoid binoculars that are too big, that grow a lot, or, on the contrary, those that do not grow enough. There are binoculars at all prices and, of course, the more expensive it is, the higher the quality.
-Avoid binoculars too cheap, which are damaged quickly

If the bird virus holds you, you'll quickly discover that without long sight, observation is sometimes difficult. This is especially true when one observes by the sea or on large bodies of water. You can find telescopes with fixed or zoomed lenses. Each type has its supporters. If you choose a fixed lens, it is better to take a magnification x 30, which is ideal. Otherwise, zooms usually have a magnification of 20 to 60. Again, the price range is wide.
- A tripod of good quality is essential.
- A tripod that is too light will move with the slightest gust of wind and prevent any correct observation.
The most "bitten" may wish to do wildlife photography. You should know that this is another approach, and that well observe and photograph at the same time are two incompatible activities!


An ornithologist is a scientist who studies birds. This is a professional or, at least, an enlightened amateur. The term ornithologist has been used more systematically to name a person who observes and is interested in birds. An English phrase - "BIRDWATCHER" - sums up the activity better, and this word should be used for all bird lovers and those who love to simply look at them in their natural environment. Alas, to date, no French translation of this term has found a broad agreement. So we now use the French word "BIRDWATCHER" to denominate these people.


The lemurs reached Madagascar by accident, on driftwood and other floating vegetation – reluctant castaways floating away from the African mainland, a journey that would have taken weeks. Strong currents would have helped the epic crossing of the Mozambique Channel that’s about 250 miles (400 kilometers) wide at its narrowest .Most amazingly; entirely new species are still being discovered to this day.


TOURISM IS ALWAYS IN EVOLUTIONAs for ecotourism, in its broadest definition, in 1998, it holds a significant share estimated at one-fifth of the world tourist market. However, a re-evaluation based on the most appropriate definition of this segment of tourism estimates the share of ecotourism at 5%. It is large all the same and continues to increase. In addition, the potential of this sector is enormous since several studies have confirmed that 50% of travelers are interested in various forms of nature-culture tourism (with a positive growth of about 30% per year practicing this kind of tourism). It is therefore up to tour guides and operators such as NARCISSE TOURS DISCOVERY, helped by the national strategy, to guide this trend and to influence this category of people to become true eco-tourists (for the obvious environmental and socio-economic benefits) .This is especially true for a country like MADAGASCAR with the start-up assets that the country has (biodiversity and traditional culture). At this stage, it seems important to view the strengths of tourism leaders in a global context and according to the evolutionary trends, because TOURISM IS ALWAYS IN EVOLUTION.

The boat's pilot is responsible for the lives of the people on board and his boat

The boat's pilotThe boat's pilot is responsible for the lives of the people on board and his boat. He must make the decisions that allow the safety of everyone on board, both in terms of his behavior and his actions. He must learn about the weather before leaving and in case the weather is likely to get worse, it is his duty to make decisions based on a cautious judgment and, if necessary, to inform passengers that it is necessary to return to the edge, for their good security, for example.

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